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Lubrication and maintenance engineering of mechanical transmission system
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Lubrication and maintenance engineering of mechanical transmission system

Engineering machinery, also known as construction machinery, is mainly used for construction engineering, road construction and maintenance, and flow-type lifting operations. All kinds of construction engineering mechanization are based on engineering machinery field operations. Poor weather conditions and geographical conditions will heavily damage work devices and moving mechanisms, hence, indicating the need for lubrication in the mechanical parts, especially the transmission system of construction machineries.

Construction machinery transmission system mainly includes the transfer case, gearbox, drive shaft, drive axle, gear reducer, vibrator, transmission gears, chains, and etc. Gear oil lubrication are mainly used for these parts. For engineering machineries , lubrication may be challenging due to the climate and geographical conditions of construction.

If the temperature is too high, it will cause the lubricant’s viscosity to decline, causing oil pressure to accelerate the oxidation of oil. This leads to poor oil quality. If the temperature is too low, the lubricant’s viscosity would increase, leading to difficulties for the oil to reachparts which need lubrication. Thus, the lubrication effect will beless effective. Larger amounts of dust in the air, higher level of oil impurities, and dusty and dirty mechanical surfaceswill increase the difficulty of lubrication work.

Thus, when lubricating the transmission system of construction machineries, we should pay attention to the following contents:

Check the oil level and conduct oil analysis on a regular basis
We need to understand the mechanical vehicle’s maintenance manual and adhere to the manufacturer’s recommended maintenance period, combined with the use of mechanical condition sample analysis, to determine the mechanical lubrication inspection cycle.

Lube oil level check needs to be done when the driving parts are not rotating (stop the parts from rotating to avoid oil spills as oil level testing will not be accurate this way.
Check the oil level by unscrewing the oil plug.Check whether there is oil or oil plug with oil to determine whether the oil level is achieved or not.

For lubricating oil sample analysis cycles, in general, it is better for the intervals of oil change period to be short. The maintenance manual stats that the requirement for transmission oil change is at intervals of 1000 hours. According to the operation condition of the engineering machinery,the oil sample analysis needs to be conducted every 500 hours to 750 hours to decide if there is a need for an oil change. The sample analysis results will help determine if the oil has been contaminated or deteriorated, and if there is any metal powder in the oil. This is in order todetermine whether the metamorphism of oil and the abrasion of mechanical parts has occurred or not.

Replace the gas and oil accurately
The suitable time interval in the replacement of lubricating oil can guarantee better lubrication of the transmission parts. Protecting these parts with lubrication will guarantee a longer working life for the transmission parts.

Also, check the oil level for any shortage.If an oil shortage is found, oil filler or hole filling should be added to the hole until the oil level is able to reach the limit of the scale.
When changing the oil,you need to discharge the oil. The oil’s temperature should reach 40-50 ℃. Should there be a case of disturbance in emission, this indicates that the oil is dirty and needs to be cleaned. Before lubricating oil discharge, the roller should be started first to warm the oil, so that the hotter oil will flow out faster, allowing the impurities in the machine to be drained more easily together with the oil mixture.

Lubrication
First, stop the engine. After putting out the engine, wash the dirt on the outer surface and the surrounding before unloading the oil plug.
Use a filter to refuel the tanker.

Heavy oil plug should be cleaned properly, in order to avoid oil pollution.

For the drive axle, wheel planetary gear reducer, and vibrator oil chamber, be careful asthe exposed part of the shell is rotating. While checking the oil level or putting oil and gas, first ensure that the machine’s oil hole position is in the appropriate position.

If there are two oil hole shell in the end shell,the oil drain hole should be turn to the lowest position to allow the lubricating oil to enter. When checking the oil level or refueling, the refueling hole should be turned to the highest position so that the oil level can be determined from another oil hole.

If the end shell has only one oil hole, the set oil and fuel oil hole position will be different and may need to go for rotating machinery.
During the oil drain, there is a need for the oil hole to bepositioned to the bottom.

When checking the oil level or filling lubricating oil, the oil hole rotation can be marked by the horizontal position and the oil level should be made at the edge of the oil hole.